Iowa Legal Update Lesson Summaries

2019 - 2020

2020 Lesson 09: Police-Prosecutor Relations

Interpersonal

Release Date: 

9/1/2020

This lesson is an online interpersonal perspective course on police-prosecutor relations.


Section one describes how police and prosecutors can develop positive working relationships that provide a foundation for an effective criminal justice system. It explains essential components for a good relationship: alignment, credibility, a communication system, accountability, cooperative assurance, and respect and giving credit.


Section two describes how the following “executive landmines” can undermine the relationship between police and prosecutors: egos, differences in background, resentment of the county attorney as the chief law enforcement officer, and varying political influences. It provides guidance on how to address these executive landmines.


Section three addresses common criticisms officers may have of prosecutors. It provides perspective that can help address these concerns and improve the police-prosecutor relationship.


Section four addresses how an officer’s report can influence the police prosecutor relationship.


Section five explains the term “alignment” and describes how police and prosecutors can achieve alignment. It describes how alignment facilitates convictions and examines the role of joint activities.


Sections six addresses the issues faced by prosecutors when police are accused of misconduct. It further examines public perceptions of police/prosecutor conflict-of-interests when police are suspected of criminal behavior. Finally, it explores the role of the FBI and the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) in addressing alleged police misconduct.


Section seven examines the “Brady” rule and its importance to the police-prosecutor relationship. It provides an overview of Brady-Giglio evidence and explains the importance of police providing that evidence to prosecutors.

2020 Lesson 08: Legal Update

Legal

Release Date: 

8/1/2020

This is an online, Iowa-specific legal studies course. The lesson addresses recent court decisions providing guidance to Iowa law enforcement officers regarding the following questions:

  • Under Iowa Code section 804.20, what statements by a person are a “request” for a telephone call to an attorney or family member? How should officers respond to such a request?

  • Does a lawful residential search warrant authorize the seizure and search of a person who left the residence before officers arrived to conduct the search?

  • What quality and quantity of evidence will provide probable cause to support a search warrant?

  • Does an unlicensed driver in possession of a rental car have Fourth Amendment protection in the car?

  • If a first pat-down search of a suspect does not reveal any evidence, when may an officer perform a second pat-down search of the same suspect?

  • Continuous Sexual Abuse of a Child.

2020 Lesson 07: Legislative & Caselaw Update

Legal

Release Date: 

7/1/2020

This is an online, Iowa-specific legislative and caselaw update. This lesson addresses 2020 amendments to the Iowa Code regarding: 


  • Peace Officers.

  • CDL Sanctions.

  • Controlled Substances.

  • Prescription Monitoring.

  • Eluding.

  • Criminal Acts.


This lesson also provides caselaw updates regarding the following questions: 

  • When may an officer stop a car that is registered to someone who does not have a valid driver’s license? 

  • What circumstances will provide reasonable suspicion that justifies a traffic stop?

  • When may officers enter a home without a search warrant under the “emergency aid” exception to the warrant requirement?

2020 Lesson 06: Legal Update

Legal

Release Date: 

6/1/2020

This is an online, Iowa-specific legal studies course. The lesson addresses recent court decisions providing guidance to Iowa law enforcement officers regarding the following questions:

  • When does an officer who approaches a parked car “seize” the car’s occupants?

  • What is the scope of an officer’s duty to verify a person’s identity before arresting the person pursuant to an arrest warrant?

  • What factors do courts consider when determining if a person has given voluntary consent to a home search?

  • When will law enforcement officials be entitled to qualified immunity against a student’s claim the officer used excessive force to seize him/her in school?

  • What are the rights of civilians to observe police activity?


2020 Lesson 05: Substance Use, Behavior, & Medical Emergencies - Part 3

Interpersonal

Release Date: 

5/1/2020

This is Part 3 of a three-part online interpersonal perspectives course on Substance Use, Behavior, and Medical Emergencies. This lesson provides officers with critical information about medical conditions sometimes producing odd behavior or mistaken for intoxication so officers can make more informed decisions, reduce reaction time, obtain appropriate medical care, and improve the outcome of many of these encounters.  


Where possible, the lesson includes examples from lawsuits alleging officers used excessive force against a person with one of the serious medical conditions described in the lesson or were deliberately indifferent to a serious medical condition. It is beyond the scope of this lesson to provide first aid instructions.


Section seven defines traumatic brain injury (TBI), explains common causes of TBI, identifies when law enforcement officers might encounter a person with a TBI, and identifies potential effects of TBI. The lesson also lists danger signs of TBI that indicate a person needs immediate medical attention. It also provides case study examples.


Section eight explains the types of stroke, signs of stroke, methods for identifying stroke, and provides a video of a person experiencing a stroke. It also provides case study examples.


Section nine addresses hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. It defines hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, identifies symptoms of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and explains an appropriate law enforcement response to persons with hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. It also provides case study examples.


Section ten defines epilepsy and explains how law enforcement officers can help a person experiencing a seizure while waiting for medical care.


Section eleven addresses other medical emergencies, including heart attack, heat stroke, breathing emergencies, and sepsis. It also provides case study examples.



2020 Lesson 04: Substance Use, Behavior, & Medical Emergencies - Part 2

Interpersonal

Release Date: 

4/1/2020

This is Part 2 of a three-part online interpersonal perspectives course on Substance Use, Behavior, and Medical Emergencies.


Section four addresses involuntary commitment procedures for persons presenting a likelihood of serious harm to themselves or others as a result of alcohol or drug abuse. 


It includes definitions relevant to Iowa’s involuntary detention procedures for drug or alcohol abuse. It explains who may file an application for detention, treatment, and rehabilitation in an alcohol or drug abuse facility.


Section five provides an overview of behavioral signs of medical conditions. It explains the importance of officers recognizing behavioral indicators of medical conditions. The section describes how certain behavioral signs of medical conditions are associated with in-custody death. The lesson also describes how officers, like EMTs, can learn to generate a field impression of subjects and spot problem behaviors.


Section six addresses delirium. It defines delirium and explains its causes and its symptoms. It identifies the three medically recognized types of delirium: hyperactive delirium; hypoactive delirium; and mixed delirium. It explains the history and controversy surrounding “excited delirium syndrome.” The section identifies behaviors associated with hyperactive or excited delirium and provides several case study examples. 


Finally, the section provides guidance on the law enforcement response to people experiencing delirium.



2020 Lesson 03: Substance Use, Behavior, & Medical Emergencies - Part 1

Interpersonal/Mental Health

Release Date: 

3/1/2020

This is Part 1 of a three-part online interpersonal perspectives course on Substance Use, Behavior, and Medical Emergencies.


Section one addresses the importance of law enforcement officials understanding their duty of care when in contact with people using substances or who may be experiencing a medical emergency. It examines the two situations under which the Fourteenth Amendment imposes an affirmative duty on police to protect or care for private citizens: 1) In custodial and other settings in which the state has limited the individuals' ability to care for themselves; and 2) When the state affirmatively places a particular individual in a position of danger the individual would not otherwise have faced. The lesson also provides examples of cases illustrating these concepts.


Section two addresses substance use. It explains general indicators of intoxication, substance use disorders, drug overdose, withdrawal, and drug-related medical emergencies. It goes on to explain the specific health and behavioral effects of specific drugs, including: alcohol; tobacco; marijuana; stimulants (including methamphetamine and cocaine); hallucinogens; MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly); and opioids (including prescription opioids and heroin).


Section three addresses law enforcement officers responding to substance users. It provides details on crisis-intervention guidelines.


The Iowa Law Enforcement Academy has reviewed the 2020 PLS Substance Use, Behavior, & Medical Emergencies – Part 1 online lesson and found that it meets the criteria for annual in-service mental health training as outlined in Iowa Administrative Code r. 501-8.1(4). This lesson is intended to take one hour to complete and focuses on substance use as a subset of issues involved in mental health.



2020 Lesson 02: Legal Update

Legal

Release Date: 

2/1/2020

This is an online, Iowa-specific legal studies course. The lesson addresses recent court decisions providing guidance to Iowa law enforcement officers regarding the following questions:


  • When does a law enforcement officer violate the Fourth Amendment by extending a traffic stop to investigate suspected drug activity?

  • May probation/parole officers ever enter a residence without a warrant? 

  • May officers ever handcuff a person for officer safety purposes without arresting him/her?

  • When may officers enter a home under the community caretaking exception to the warrant requirement?

  • When will an officer accused of using excessive force for deploying a Taser be entitled to qualified immunity?

  • When will officers who use deadly force to seize a suicidal person be entitled to qualified immunity?


2020 Lesson 01: Officer Safety

Interpersonal

Release Date: 

1/1/2020

This is an online officer safety and interpersonal perspectives course. This lesson focuses on preventing law enforcement officer line-of-duty deaths through maintaining vigilance. It examines what can be learned from studying data on line of duty deaths and case studies on the deaths of individual officers. The lesson focuses on communicating with dispatchers and other law enforcement officers, and anticipating potential threats. The lesson is based on a report from the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund that studied officers responding to dispatched calls for service, officers engaged in self-initiated activity (such as traffic stops), and ambushes. Based on the report, the lesson offers recommendations to help improve officer safety.

2019 Lesson 12: Legal Update

Legal

Release Date: 

12/1/2019

This is an online, Iowa-specific legal studies course. The lesson addresses recent court decisions providing guidance to Iowa law enforcement officers regarding the following questions:

  • When may officers use flash-bang grenades to execute search warrants?

  • What disclosures by police will violate a victim’s Fourteenth Amendment right to privacy?

  • Is Iowa Code section 321J.2(1)(c)’s prohibition on operating a motor vehicle with “any amount” of a controlled substance in a person’s body constitutional under all circumstances?

  • Can a person in jail who threatens a police officer’s family commit harassment?

  • When will an officer be entitled to qualified immunity for enforcing a store search policy?


2019 Lesson 11: Domestic Violence Investigations - Part 3

Technical

Release Date: 

11/1/2019

This is part three of a three-part domestic violence investigations lesson.


Section 8 examines criminal no-contact orders.


Section 9 addresses the challenges of investigating domestic violence, why victims may fear involving law enforcement officers, and how officers investigating domestic violence can help gain a victim’s cooperation.


Section 10 provides an outline for a domestic assault investigation, including: gathering information and approaching the scene, interviewing the victim, identifying the predominant aggressor, collecting evidence, writing a report, making an arrest decision, safety planning with the victim, gathering input from other professionals, and identifying additional resources.


Section 11 examines victim’s rights and resources, with a focus on the duties officers have towards domestic violence victims.



2019 Lesson 10: Domestic Violence Investigations - Part 2

Technical

Release Date: 

10/1/2019

This is part two of a three-part domestic violence investigations lesson.


Section 5 provides detailed guidance from the United States Department of Justice to help law enforcement agencies comply with relevant federal laws and prevent gender bias in their response to sexual assault and domestic violence (the Guidance). The Guidance provides examples of gender bias and tips on identifying bias in an investigation. It then provides seven principles to prevent gender bias in investigations.


Section 6 examines the Iowa Code provisions describing the process for obtaining civil orders of protection.


Section 7 addresses provisions of Iowa Code Chapter 236 provisions about the required law enforcement response to allegations of domestic violence. It addresses discretionary and mandatory arrests, immunity, foreign protections orders, and more.



2019 Lesson 09: Domestic Violence Investigations - Part 1

Technical

Release Date: 

9/1/2019

This is an online domestic violence investigations lesson. 


Section 1 addresses the dynamics of domestic violence, including domestic violence prevalence, signs of domestic violence in both opposite-sex and same-sex relationships, harms caused by domestic violence, why people batter, why victims are reluctant to end abusive relationships, and risk factors contributing to domestic violence. 


Section 2 defines trauma, explores the concept of “trauma-informed” policing, explains types of trauma, examines how the trauma inflicted by domestic violence differs from other types of traumatic experiences, identifies how a person might respond to trauma, and how trauma might impact a victim’s ability to describe her/his experiences to police. 


Section 3 addresses working with the LGBTQ community by defining important terms, identifying special barriers to seeking help faced by members of the LGBTQ community, and explaining how police can build trust with that community. 


Section 4 addresses victim concerns about calling police for help with domestic violence, including the fear that calling police might make things worse for the victim or offender and that police will not believe victims. Section 4 also addresses what police can do to help victims.



2019 Lesson 08: Legal Update

Legal

Release Date: 

8/1/2019

This is an online, Iowa-specific legal studies course. The lesson addresses recent court decisions providing guidance to Iowa law enforcement officers regarding the following questions:

  • When will officers have reasonable suspicion to stop a vehicle for suspected narcotics trafficking?

  • When will misleading statements in a warrant affidavit invalidate the warrant?

  • What evidence will provide probable cause to search a house for suspected narcotics trafficking?

  • Do officers with probable cause to make an arrest face any civil liability if their motivation for the arrest is retaliation for the person’s speech?

  • When a driver suspected of DWI is unconscious and cannot be given a breath test, may an officer obtain a warrantless blood draw from the driver?

2019 Lesson 07: Legislative Update

Legal

Release Date: 

7/1/2019

This is an online, Iowa-specific legislative update course. This lesson addresses 2019 changes to the Iowa Code regarding:

  • Lascivious Conduct with a Minor.

  • Dependent Adult Exploitation & Abuse.

  • Motor Vehicles.

  • School Driver's Licenses.

  • Massage Therapy/Human Trafficking Defense.

  • Self-Driving Vehicles.

  • Retired Officers and Driver’s Education.

  • Canned Alcoholic Cocktails.

  • Female Genital Mutilation.

  • Trespass to Agricultural Facilities.

  • Criminal Law.


2019 Lesson 06: Legal Update

Legal

Release Date: 

6/1/2019

This is an online, Iowa-specific legal studies course. The lesson addresses recent court decisions providing guidance to Iowa law enforcement officers regarding the following questions:

  • Under Iowa Code section 804.20, if a person is suspected of OWI, when and under what circumstances does that person have a right to make telephone calls to a family member or an attorney?

  • When investigating private real property, which portion of the property is considered the “curtilage” and thereby subject to privacy protection?

  • What evidence is sufficient to prove that a person was operating a motor vehicle while intoxicated?

  • When will an officer be entitled to qualified immunity for using force against a plaintiff who ignores the officer’s commands?

  • When might evidence obtained pursuant to a search warrant be suppressed?



2019 Lesson 05: Developmental Disabilities & Dementia

Interpersonal/Mental Health

Release Date: 

5/1/2019

This is an online course designed to assist law enforcement officers in handling persons with mental health and cognitive impairment issues. The lesson addresses various disorders and conditions that affect cognitive function. 


The first section of this lesson examines developmental disabilities, including intellectual disabilities, autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, Prader-Willi syndrome, and fetal alcohol syndrome. It explains how to recognize when a person has a developmental disability and provides detailed guidance for law enforcement officers on handling an encounter with persons with specific developmental disabilities.



The second section of this lesson examines dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease. It explains how to recognize when a person has dementia and provides detailed guidance for law enforcement officers on handling encounters with persons with dementia. It provides additional guidance on handling reports of missing persons with dementia.



The Iowa Law Enforcement Academy has reviewed the 2019 PLS Developmental Disabilities & Dementia online lesson and found that it meets the criteria for annual in-service mental health training as outlined in Iowa Administrative Code r. 501-8.1(4). This lesson is intended to take one hour to complete and focuses on developmental disabilities and dementia as a subset of issues involved in mental health.



2019 Lesson 04: Legal Update

Legal

Release Date: 

4/1/2019

This is an online, Iowa-specific legal studies course. The lesson addresses recent court decisions providing guidance to Iowa law enforcement officers regarding the following questions:

  • When may an officer stop and frisk a person whom he knows is carrying a concealed weapon?

  • When may an officer extend a traffic stop to investigate suspected criminal activity apart from the traffic violation?

  • May police use a search warrant rather than implied consent procedures to obtain a blood sample?

  • When will law enforcement officials be denied qualified immunity for neglecting an arrestee’s serious medical needs?

  • When will officers be denied qualified immunity for pointing their weapons at a suspect for too long?


2019 Lesson 03: Human Trafficking Investigations - Part 2

Technical

Release Date: 

3/1/2019

This is Part 2 of a two-part online course on Human Trafficking Investigations. 


Section 6 examines the provisions in the Iowa Code prohibiting human trafficking. 


Section 7 addresses federal laws prohibiting human trafficking.


Section 8 examines investigative considerations in human trafficking cases, including the following: tips for proactive identification of trafficking cases; understanding why victims may be difficult to recognize; indicators of human trafficking; the use of interpreters; victim interviews; and collecting evidence.


Section 9 identifies victims’ rights under state and federal laws, as well as resources available to law enforcement and victims.



2019 Lesson 02: Human Trafficking Investigations - Part 1

Technical

Release Date: 

2/1/2019

This is Part 1 of a two-part online course on Human Trafficking Investigations. 


Section 1 addresses the dynamics and significance of human trafficking. It explains that human trafficking falls into two basic categories and explains the difference between them. It identifies the prevalence of human trafficking in the United States and provides examples of cases from the Midwest. It further identifies populations that are vulnerable to becoming victims of human trafficking and describes how traffickers control victims.


Section two describes sex trafficking and provides an explanation of the various subtypes of sex trafficking. It explains how children may become sex trafficking victims and how traffickers control sex trafficking victims. 


Section three describes labor trafficking and explains the various subtypes of labor trafficking, including how traffickers recruit and control victims.


Section four identifies the many reasons why victims may not leave their traffickers or cooperate with law enforcement officials. It further explains how trauma can affect victims.


Section five identifies common misconceptions about human trafficking and explains why those misconceptions are inaccurate.



2019 Lesson 01: Legal Update

Legal

Release Date: 

1/1/2019

This is an online, Iowa-specific legal studies course. The lesson addresses recent court decisions providing guidance to Iowa law enforcement officers regarding the following questions:

  • When will an officer’s concern for a driver’s safety justify a stop under the community caretaking exception to the warrant requirement?

  • What are the rights of passengers in vehicles?

  • When will a tip that a vehicle was seen leaving the area of a recently committed crime justify a traffic stop?

  • When will an officer not be entitled to qualified immunity for actions taken during an investigation of alleged abuse by a family member?

  • When will an officer not be entitled to qualified immunity for using a Taser against a person?

Release Date: 

Release Date: 

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